Archive for category CO2 emission

Curaçao and the Shell heritage

In 1985, Royal Dutch Shell sold its refinery in the port of Curaçao to the former government of the island. For the symbolic amount of one guilder. The refinery was outdated and no longer met the current environmental standards. The legacy for Curaçao is a very outdated facility and a huge asphalt lake. The Dutch government, then a co-owner of Shell, puts pressure on the government of Curaçao to either dismantle the refinery or a clear plan for the future.

Curacao’s history dates back to about 3000 BC. Rock paintings and artifacts show that the island was already inhabited. The Spaniard Alonso de Ojeda was the first Western discoverer who set foot on Curaçao in 1499. The original inhabitants, the Caquetio, were expelled and the island transformed into a major agricultural and livestock project. Large numbers of sheep, cows, horses and pigs shipped from Spain and its colonies to the Caribbean island.

In 1634 the Spaniard surrendered after being defeated by the Dutch. The West India Company saw a perfect base for the supply of slaves from Africa. Several attempts by the Spaniards to retake the island ended to nothing. In 1791 the island was officially a Dutch colony. Since 2010 Curaçao is an autonomous state within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Since the eighties a few corrupt politicians agreed to acquire the refinery, Since then the island is doomed to his downfall. With the approval of the Netherlands, Shell could dump its garbage for just one guilder. This saved the company probably millions of dollars in remediation costs. These costs now fully reside with the island government. The Netherlands puts pressure on Curaçao to come up with concrete plans for the near future without a financial aid fund to support the island. Every day of delay affects the entire ecological and economic system of Curaçao.

As long as there are no clear guidelines for the refinery it can have major implications for the future of the population. A magnificent example of Dutch shear politics.

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Unfair tax exemption electric car?

Hybrid vehicles have failed to meet the environmental standards according to several investigations. Many studies prove that we are not going in the right direction. See Polluting hybrid and electric vehicles. After a brief investigation it occurs that new electric cars are not as clean as claimed.

The electric motor, with the LIB-batteries (lithium-ion), is a response to the demands of governments to reduce CO2 emissions. Of 140 grams of CO2 per kilometer in 2011 and 120 grams of CO2 in 2012. According to the manufacturers the electric car meet the standard. They also claim to meet the standard of 2025, 70 grams of CO2. The consumer is told a 0.0 g of CO2 emission.

Citroen C-Zero and Mitsubishi i-MiEV is the latest development from manufacturers with a clear message to consumers; the CO2 emissions of these vehicles is 0.0 grams of CO2. In other words, the owner of this car supports the environment, driving without CO2 emission . Please drive often in the untaxed car because you get the feeling to drive as clean as riding a bicycle.

However, to generate energy for the electric car to roll with power from the socket isn’t that clean . Where conventional vehicles with combustion engines go to the gas station, it is the electric car filling at home. Connect the plug into the socket and a couple of hours later you can drive again. This eventually must be reduced to 20 minutes.

The European Union will build new charcoal plants to meet the increased demand of the consumers. The development of the EU and less dependent on “foreign power”. The future on the road with only electric cars will generate a greater need for electricity power.

Charcoal plant               ==>      40%  ==>  Transport        ==>            35%  ==>     Consumer

Based on the above images it is clear, the efficiency of current charcoal combustion is “only” 40 percent.  As many as 65 percent is lost again during the transport of electricity through power lines before it reaches the consumer.

A simple calculation prove only 16 percent “power socket” remains since it was generated at the charcoal plant . These figures are supported by World Nuclear Association. To determine the CO2 emissions of generating electricity and transport, we calculate in Kilo Watt hours (kWh). A charcoal plant can emit up to 350 g CO2 per kWh electricity generated emissions, the report said. The result is 2187.5 grams of CO2 per kWh for the consumer.

The power consumption of the Citroen C – Zero and the Mitsubishi i-MiEV is 13, 5 kWh per hundred kilometers. This is the consumption of most new electric cars in this class. Per kilometer driven  the electric car consumes 295.31 grams of CO2. The legal standard for 2012 was set at 120 grams of CO2 ….

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